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b_200_0_16777215_00_images_blogimages_51613_ed5ec3243e718c99323242dd86b4eb33_c71b993c2eebf614c1a6014ce1e6dca0.jpgArticle from SCPR.org

Adolfo Guzman-Lopez | 

长滩学区官员批准了一所特许学校,该学校将于明年开办,其使命是教授“智力美德”,” a concept with roots in classical Greek philosophy.

Two Southland philosophy professors launched the charter school effort; public school teachers and parents have joined in. 他们的目标是向学生灌输批判性思维技能,他们认为这种技能在公立学校中被严重低估了.

研究人如何发展终身智力特征的学科被称为美德认识论. It’s become a branch of philosophy research in the last two decades.

Loyola Marymount大学的哲学教授Jason Baehr十多年来一直致力于这方面的研究. 但是仅仅是研究和写关于这个话题的文章让他感到不满足——尤其是当他看到公立学校重视快速回忆的方式之后, high IQs and high scores on multiple-choice tests.

“What that stuff leaves out is a more personal dimension, personal qualities like curiosity and attentiveness, open mindedness, intellectual carefulness, intellectual thoroughness, important for knowledge and learning,” he said.

拥有约翰·邓普顿基金会100多万美元的伟德BETVlCTOR资助, Baehr在夏季为教师组织了一个为期一周的关于美德认识论的速成班. National and international experts offered a dozen L.A. 以及奥兰治县教育工作者关于如何教育学生成为终身批判性思考者的想法. 该小组于10月会面,讨论它如何在教室中发挥作用.

12年级的英语老师凯瑟琳·罗(Katherine Lo)说,这门课让她的学生更努力地去质疑自己为什么要学习古代戏剧《伟德BETVlCTO》(Antigone).”

“The kids at first gave the expected answers, the expected to hear, develop skills, better readers,” she said.

“OK, what else?” she asked the students. There was a long, uncomfortable pause.

“I didn’t jump in and rescue them, I waited. One of my students, she’s an inclusion student, she has a learning disability; she raised her hand and I called on her, and she said, ‘Well, we read so we can feel less alone.’”

Beautiful, Lo thought. The observation prompted a 10 minute student discussion. 罗教授说,学生们越来越热衷于谈论这个有着2500年历史的戏剧.

教师一旦开始教学,就会在教师教育课程和专业发展课程中学习如何培养批判性思维技能. 圣佩德罗高中的英语老师杰基·布莱恩特说,这些培训都没有解开教授批判性思维的秘密.

“I never quite understood what that was. 我也会尝试一些活动,但我没有语言,也没有心情知道我和学生们在做什么,” she said.

教师奥古斯丁·维耶拉说,他已经开始让学生们思考开放思想的含义, intellectually courageous, and intellectually humble as soon as they start their day. 他分享了一段自己拍摄的视频,这段视频记录了一场晨间电话问答仪式,听起来像是智力训练营.

视频中的学生几乎是在大喊:“要在智力上积极进取. Be intellectually humble. Be respectful of all people and things. Sit like a scholar. Be an intellectual leader.” Some of them raise closed fists as they recite.

“每天早上,我们都要做我们对国家的承诺, our pledge to our school, and our pledge to ourselves and our classroom. It’s a two part pledge I make my pledge to them, my pledge is to give them my best, to challenge them, to treat them as scholars,” Viyera said.

His third graders, he said, 正在发展成为一个对什么是优秀的思想家有更复杂理解的知识团体.

U.C. 欧文分校的研究人员伊丽莎白·范·埃斯说,这种课堂教学方式之所以不能大规模地在公共教育中扎根,是因为美国的教育政策.S. 公立学校有一套制度化的惯例来教育学生,不给这种脱离常规的学习留下太多空间.

一百多年来,许多教育工作者一直提倡这种学习方式,” van Es said.

这就是为什么哲学家贾森·巴尔和其他一些人开始着手把智力美德的哲学思想转化为现实的原因之一, independent charter school.

Baehr, a Biola University philosophy colleague, 以及前教师鲍勃·科沃罗等人开启了未来的董事会 Intellectual Virtues Academy at a Cal State Long Beach classroom on a recent evening.

“我只想说,这是令人兴奋的,我很高兴能成为真正有价值的一部分,” Covolo said.

董事会成员雪莉·米尔萨普说,她计划在三个适龄女儿足够大时让她们进入知识美德学院.

“It’s not just a philosophical endeavour, I’m an implementer. 我有商业背景,这对我来说很重要,这不仅仅是维持一个由想法驱动的概念,它实际被应用,是负责任的,我们有以行动为导向的结果,” she said.

长滩学区官员批准学校在秋季开设一个六年级班,在随后几年开设七年级和八年级班. 找到一个合适的设施——并筹集资金来维持它——是一个大问题, board members said.

满足不需要多少批判性思维能力的标准化考试要求应该是学校的另一个大问题, said U.C. Berkeley education researcher Janelle Scott.

“如果教师以更基于这种模式的方式教学,而学生没有按照他们希望的方式进行评估,会发生什么?. 那么,你会放弃这种方法,转而采用更传统的方法,还是坚持下去?” she asked.

特许学校的创始人坚持认为,如果他们教学生模仿古代哲学家的思维技巧和特点, mastery of any subject matter will follow.